Cellular networks from Mobile Network Operators are driven by a meshed infrastructure of cell towers that are strategic geographically dispersed. These cell towers drive the physical signal transport and steering of the signal quality. Smartphones and Cellular Routers are ‘slaves’ to these cell towers. They have to obey the control of these cell towers.
When a cellular device is moving away from a cell tower the signal level, and as such the signal quality, is becoming lesser in a logarithmic way. Smartphones have signal strength indicators that are represented in the below graph to makes this clear.
It is clear that actually already nearby a cell tower signal strength is dropping significantly. (This graph in itself should take away concerns of anybody who is afraid that the new 5G network -that still operates at the already in use 4G frequencies- is affecting our health). When being inside a building or a ship this is even getting worse when the signal has to traverse several walls. Understand that higher frequencies are more attenuated than lower frequencies when travelling walls, this is the same as with sound where bass sounds are heard over far larger distances than the high pitched tones of ie. violins. Physics don’t change, thanks to stubborness of Mother Nature..
The effect of this all is even stronger inside office buildings or houses. Concrete is a beautiful construction material but it requires metal framing to help giving its strength and the thickness is also a great high frequency isolator. Two important aspects, metal presence and isolation, that will have a severe negative impact on the cellular (and wifi) signal quality inside these kind of buildings. The sunprotecting window glass is also a good HF isolator. This all will result in a substantial cellular signal deterioration. Below graph shows best…
So to overcome these effects it is necessary to have an adaptable device that can reverse these effects. It needs to sense the signal strengths at different frequency bands and adapt to these and amplify accordingly. That will result in a signal energy to distance graph like below.
The further distance reach of the amplfier is real. In a ‘free field’ the signal coverage is multiplied by at least a factor 2! Over water surfaces this easily reaches this a factor 4. Often more since lower frequencybands are being used for both 4G and 5G services. Ofcourse the bandwidths achieved will be lesser than with the higher frequency bands. Again…Mother Nature.
Also another important effect is still underrated here and that is the fact that over a much larger area a good signal quality is being achieved, due to the adaptive signal improvement of the repeaters and amplfiers. A better signal level/quality achieves automatically a higher obtainable bandwidth.
So what is actually realised is not just a larger signal coverage (ie. a better signal quality) but higher bandwidth over a larger area than in a non-amplified environment. Rethink this very well what the impact of this will be when high frequency bands will be deployed for high bandwidth demands as for 5G.
For us the outcome is predictable. The more higher frequency bands are deployed the more the mobile network operators become susceptible for locations that have not enough coverage of their services. Realize that for several reasons mobile network operators can only have a maximum number of cell towers installed. The outcome here will be that it will become a fact that mobile network operators will have an increasing amount of ‘white spots/areas’ for high performance users, where services will be insufficient or even unavailable.
On the next page the solution to overcome these inhouse signal deficiencies with a structured Repeater / Line Amplifier and Distributed Antenna System approach.